The Indiana State Teachers Association is a professional association organized to bring about the continued improvement of educational opportunities for the youth of Indiana and to improve the professional status of educators. It is affiliated with the National Education Association. The Association is supported by the dues of its members and receives no tax funds from any source.


The support of education prior to the 1850’s had been sporadic and unorganized. By 1852 the need for legislation to finance public education was so apparent that the Indiana General Assembly passed laws providing for both state and local levies for school purposes. This important 1852 law was contested in the courts, however, and the Indiana Supreme Court ruled that it was unconstitutional because the tax was "discriminatory."


As a result of this ruling by the Indiana Supreme Court that local taxes could not be used for public education which threatened a serious setback to education in the state, ISTA was founded on Christmas Day, 1854. One hundred seventy-eight farsighted educators from over the state journeyed to Indianapolis for a meeting to contest this threat to free schools.             handbook


Born as a crusade, the ISTA in over one hundred fifty five years of service, has adhered to its original premise that equal educational opportunity for the fullest individual development is the inherent right of every American and, further, that public education is basic to our democracy and to the perpetuation of our American way of life. In all of this history, the ISTA has recognized that the heart of public schools is the teachers and education support professionals. Their standard of living and cultural environment are basic to high quality performance for the youth of our country.

Past Presidents of the

Indiana State Teachers Association


Date Name

1854 William M. Daily

1855 William M. Daily

1856 Charles Barnes

1857 James G. May

1858 Barnabas C. Hobbs

1859 Caleb Mills

1860 E. P. Cole

1861 George A. Irvin

1862 Cyrus Nutt

1863 Allen R. Benton

1864 Benjamin T. Hoyt

1865 Ryland T. Brown

1866 George Wash. Hoss

1867 Joseph F. Tuttle

1868 Abram C. Shortridge

1869 Joseph Tingley

1870 David Eckley Hunter

1871 A.M. Gow

1872 William A. Bell

1873 James H. Smart*

1874 William A. Jones

1875 George P. Brown

1876 William H. Wiley

1877 J.H. Martin

1878 John Mcknight Bloss

1879 J.T. Merrill

1880 John Cooper

1881 Hiram B. Jacobs

1882 H.S. Tarbell

1883 John S. Irwin

1884 H.B. Hill

1885 E.E. Smith

1886 Cyrus W. Hodgin

1887 Emma Mont. McRae

1888 Lewis H. Jones

1889 Jacob A. Zeller

1890 William W. Parsons

1891 Enoch A. Bryan

1892 Justin N. Study

1893 Lincoln O. Dale

1894 Joseph Swain*

1895 Howard Sandison

1896 James F. Scull

1897 Robert A. Ogg

1898 Francis M. Stalker

1899 Will H. Glascock

1900 Robert I. Hamilton

1901 Henry B. Brown

1902 Charles A. Prosser

1903 Charles A. VanMatre

1904 William Lowe Bryan

1905 Edwin H. Hughes

1906 Benjamin F. Moore

1907 E.B. Bryan

Date Name

1908 George W. Benton

1909 Robert J. Aley*

1910 Calvin N. Kendall

1911 Samuel L. Scott

1912 Charles A. Greathouse

1913 A.O. Neal

1914 Winthrop E. Stone

1915 J.G. Collicott

1916 Anna Wilson

1917 George L. Roberts

1918 No Session (influenza)

1919 Horace Ellis

1920 Mrs. Clara L. Olcott

1921 Donald DuShane*

1922 H.L. Smith*

1923 Elsa Huebner Olson

1924 Benjamin Burris

1925 William P. Dearing

1926 Martha A. Whitacre

1927 C.W. Boucher

1928 C.E. Hinshaw

1929 Ralph N. Tirey

1930 Mattie B. Fry

1931 Milo H. Stuart

1932 Clara Rathfon

1933 Robert B. Hougham

1934 L.V. Phillips

1935 Albert Free

1936 Hilda Maehling

1937 Wendell Wright

1938 Rose E. Boggs

1939 K.V. Ammerman

1940 Margaret Sweeney

1941 J. Fred Hull

1942 Sara W. Ewing

1943 H.B. Allman

1944 Virginna Kinnaird

1945 L.T. Buck

1946 Anita Oldham

1947 W.E. Wilson

1948 Gertrude E. McComb

1949 R.E. Hood

1950 Thelma Ballard

1951 H.E. Binford

1952 Eleanor Bly

1953 George Ostheimer

1954 Mary Van Horn

1955 Glade Rohrer

1956 Rhoda Williams

1957 O.M. Swihart

1958 Audrey Shauer

1959 Earl A. Johnson

1960 Blanche Penrod

1961 Henry L. McHargue

Date Name

1962 Sparkle Crowe

1963 Glen Barkes

1964 Helen Blackledge

1965 C. Edgar Stahl

1966 Nell Bethel

1967 Charles L. Sharp

1968 Thelma Spannbauer

1969 Charles T. Reece

1970 Louella T. Martin

1971 Ernest W. Horn

1972 Johanna Hock

1973 Johanna Hock

1974 James Hirschinger

1975 Raymond A. Gran

1976 Raymond A. Gran

1977 Raymond A. Gran

1978 Cordell Affeldt

1979 Cordell Affeldt

1980 Cordell Affeldt

1981 Cordell Affeldt

1982 Cordell Affeldt

1983 Damon P. Moore

1984 Damon P. Moore

1985 Damon P. Moore

1986 Damon P. Moore

1987 Damon P. Moore

1988 Damon P. Moore

1989 Garrett L. Harbron

1990 Garrett L. Harbron

1991 Garrett L. Harbron

1992 Garrett L. Harbron

1993 Garrett L. Harbron

1994 Garrett L. Harbron

1995 J. David Young

1996 J. David Young

1997 J. David Young

1998 J. David Young

1999 J. David Young

2000 J. David Young

2001 Judith A. Briganti

2002 Judith A. Briganti

2003 Judith A. Briganti

2004 Judith A. Briganti

2005 Judith A. Briganti

2006 Judith A. Briganti

2007 Nathan Schnellenberger

2008 Nathan Schnellenberger

2009 Nathan Schnellenberger

2010 Nathan Schnellenberger

2011 Nathan Schnellenberger

2012 Nathan Schnellenberger

2013 Teresa Meredith

2014 Teresa Meredith

Executive Directors of the

Indiana State Teachers Association



Charles O. Williams—1924-1938

Robert H. Wyatt—1938-1970

Arnold W. Spilly—1970-1971 (Acting)

Ronald G. Jensen—November 1971 to December 1979

Dale E. Harris—January 1980 to May 1981

(Acting) Dale E. Harris—May 1981 to June 1984

Vincent M. Kiernan—June 1984 to February 1985 (Acting)

Warren L. Williams—February 1985 to May 2009

Ann Clarke—June 2009 to January 2010 (Acting)

Brenda Pike, Ed. D.—January 2010 to May 2016

Association Milestones

December 25,


The Indiana State Teachers Association was founded at old College hall, corner of Washington and Pennsylvania Streets, Indianapolis.



First ISTA piece of legislation was passed by Indiana General Assembly to provide funds to maintain schools.



First issue of the official monthly teachers' magazine, the Indiana School Journal, was published by

George Stone, editor. This was destined to be the oldest ISTA service.

December 20,


A bill passed establishing a state normal school at Terre Haute. Indiana State Normal School opened in 1870.



ISTA succeeded in passing first law providing for grading and consolidation of rural schools. By 1878, grading was almost state-wide. First high school commissioned in 1873.



County superintendency law passed gave legal status to the job.



First law passed permitting negro pupils to attend white schools in cases where no separate schools were provided.

The 1869 law had provided for separate schools.

A 1949 law established desegregation in Indiana's schools.


First woman president of ISTA, Emma Mont. McRae, insisted that there be a uniform school term in Indiana and she proposed first uniform textbook law which passed in 1889. Other good textbook laws in 1943 and the multiple textbook law passed in 1945.


First compulsory education law for children six to fourteen passed after a 26-year struggle by ISTA Amended in 1899, 1921, and 1953


First bills to abandon district schools introduced. First of many kindergarten bills introduced. State support for kindergarten secured in 1965.

First minimum wage law for teachers passed.


New professional requirements for teachers passed: high school graduate with 12 weeks normal school training. Trustees ordered to abandon schools with less than 12 pupils...800 closed...high school, at last, was legal.


Indiana leading the nation in consolidation.


First Indiana Vocational Education law passed. More rigid construction, equipping and sanitation standards for schools required.


The first teachers' retirement law passed. Updated in 1921 and 1939 and in 10 succeeding Legislatures.


ISTA had first permanent secretary-treasurer, C.O. Williams, Richmond, and new headquarters in



First teachers' tenure law passed. Introduced by the late Dr. L.A. Pittenger, president of Ball State

Township teachers lost tenure in 1933; but regained it in 1965.


Gov. Paul V. McNutt urged the gross income tax bill, designed as a "save the schools" measure


The man who became ISTA executive secretary in 1938, Robert H. Wyatt, fought for bill increasing training of elementary teachers from two to four years.


Special Education programs for handicapped children mandated.


First master contract bargained in Indiana by Highland Classroom Teachers Association.


Rights of Special Ed Co-operative teachers established.


UniServ Program started in Indiana. Indiana unified with the National Education Association.

Severance Pay Plans authorized.


Teacher Bargaining Law.


Improved Sabbatical Leave law.


Sick Leave Banks authorized.


Pregnancy leave law.


New due process law for teachers.


First Fair Share Fee clause bargained in Indiana by New Prairie Classroom Teachers Association.


11.5% increase in school funding.


Income Tax and Sales Tax Increases to Fund Public Schools.


Teacher Training Funds for Computer Literacy. Teacher Retraining Forgivable Loan programs.


Primetime Program.

Kindergarten Offering Mandated.

Special Education Coop Teachers Granted RIF Rights.


Primetime Funding Increased to $19,500/per Teacher

$30 Million Restored to Teachers Retirement Fund.


7.9 Percent School Funding Increase.

Equalization Factors Added to School Formula.

Retired Teachers—Continued Participation in School Group Health Insurance Plans.

ISTA becomes the first affiliate of the NEA to establish a separate not-for-profit (503 (1)(c)) corporation devoted to professional development concerns.


Teachers Social Security State Must Reimburse School Corporations for Full Costs.

Capital Projects Fund Replaces Cumulative Building Fund. A+ Program includes At-Risk Funds.


8.1 Percent School Funding Increase.

Educational Support personnel were accepted as members.


Early Retirement Rule of 85.

Due Process Law Expanded.

Home Rule for School Corporations. Publication of Name and Salary Repealed.


$200 Million Appropriation for Public Schools largest dollar increase ever.

Primetime Funding Increased to $24,500/Teacher largest dollar increase ever. Growing Enrollment Factor Revised.


Tied for one of the highest school funding increases in nation during recession, (without a tax increase), saving 5,000 school employee jobs;

Eliminated I-STEP in grades 1 and 11;

Required due process prior to teacher suspensions without pay;

First-time funding for pre-school and latchkey services to 3-5 year olds;

First-time funding for pre-school and latchkey services for regular education children plus reorganization of children's services;

First-time Medicaid reimbursement to schools for services to Medicaid-eligible children;

"Indiana 2000" School Restructuring, permitting innovative schools to waive curriculum and textbook statutes or state rules and regulations adopted by the State Board of Ed, if approved by the exclusive representative;

Technology in the Classroom Funds for the Buddy System;

Textbook reimbursement for poor students extended to include appropriate materials for K-3; Participated in a Coalition with Parents and Superintendents to increase financial support for schools.


Strong due process legislation affirming a teacher's right to full reasons for a pending dismissal, and

protecting the right to bargain binding arbitration of teacher dismissals.

Professional Standards Board governs teacher preparation and licensure. The sixteen (16) member board is appointed by the Governor.

Future ISTEP elimination and Workforce Development Bill Scheduled for implementation by 1994-95.

ISTA-R was created.


$95 million appropriated for schools to compensate for errors in 1993-94 budget.


Full repeal of contracting out legislation for school transportation services.


School funding increased, including state and local tuition support, Primetime, Vocational Education and At-Risk programs.

Restructured Special Education funding, resulting in ongoing funding increases for Special Education programs.


Increased school funding through the formula by 4.7% each year of the biennium with a minimum guarantee for all school corporations.

Provided new funding for English as a New Language and ISTEP+ graduation exam remediation programs.

Established Education Roundtable.

Protected self-funded insurance coverage by requiring a segregated fund to be established. Prevents the use of health insurance reserves for other purposes.


Expanded TRF/PERF members’ control over their annuity accounts by allowing each member to make additional contributions up to 10% of the member’s compensation.


Restored bargaining rights to Indianapolis teachers; eliminated evaluations based on I-STEP scores, parental involvement, and student attendance.

Enacted a charter school law with bargaining and due process protections.

Passed local school corporation bonding authority to resolve unfunded liabilities of locally bargained severance and retirement plans. Costs one-fourth of amount it would cost if left untended and grow- ing for the next 30-40 years.


Enacted tax restructuring to reduce the state deficit and to fund schools and other economic develop- ment initiatives. Raised sales, tobacco and gaming taxes to relieve property tax obligation to schools.


Passed funding increases for public schools approaching the inflationary index the only entity in the state budget to do so. The budget restored the $119 Million cut in 2002 and restored the deficiency caused by unanticipated enrollment growth, providing a larger base on which to compute the 3.3% and 2.9% increases.

Enacted SB 169 to restore administrative discretion on confidentiality of public employee personnel files and to make public final action on suspensions, demotions, and discharges.

Extended the deadline to Dec. 31, 2004 for local school corporation bonding to resolve unfunded liability of locally negotiated retirement and severance plans.


Indiana State Teachers Association Celebrates 150th Anniversary.


First electronic newsletter

Members only website was developed


Elected pro-public education Indiana House of Representatives majority.

Elected three new pro-public education congressmen.


Achieved largest state school funding increase in six years.

Achieved phased-in statewide funding for full-day kindergarten.

Achieved full funding of textbook costs for students eligible for free/reduced price lunch program. Achieved a 100 percent increase in remediation funding.

Defeated private school tax credits.

Defeated virtual charter schools.

In addition, ISTA has been successful in defeating many bills which would have been detrimental to public education. Often, ISTA was the only educator organization to work against such bills

Symbol of the United Education Profession


 This symbol, adopted by the NEA Executive Committee in 1966, combines the legacy of the past ( π for παιδεια, the ancient Greek work for education) with new direction for the future (> ).  The spherical triangle serving as the background r epresents the mutually supportive programs of local, state, and national education associations to advance education. In one sentence, then, the design symbolizes the forward thrust of education through a united education profession.


This symbol was changed to include all education employees at the 1985 NEA Representative Assembly in Washington, D.C.



Code of Ethics




The educator, believing in the worth and dignity of each human being, recognizes the supreme importance of the pursuit of truth, devotion to excellence, and the nurture of democratic principles. Essential to these goals is the protection of freedo m to learn and to teach and the guarantee of equal educational opportunity for all. The educator accepts the responsibility to adhere to the highest ethical standards.


The educator recognizes the magnitude of the responsibility inherent in the teaching process. The desire for the respect and confidence of one’s colleagues, of students, of parents and of the members of the community provides the incentive to attain and maintain the highest possible degree of ethical conduct. The Code of Ethics of the Education Profession indicates the aspiration of all educators and provides standards by which to judge conduct.


The remedies specified by the NEA and/or its affiliates for the violation of any provision of this Code shall be exclusive, a nd no such provision shall be enforceable in any form other than one specifically designated by the NEA or its affiliates.





The educator strives to help each student realize his or her potential as a worthy and effective member of society. The educator therefore works to stimulate the spirit of inquiry, the acquisition of knowledge and understanding, and the thoughtful formulation of worthy goals. In fulfillment of the obligation to the student, the educator––


  1. Shall not unreasonably restrain the student from independent action in the pursuit of learning.
  2. Shall not unreasonably deny the student access to varying points of view.
  3. Shall not deliberately suppress or distort subject matter relevant to the student’s progress.
  4. Shall make reasonable effort to protect the student from conditions harmful to learning or to health and safety.
  5. Shall not intentionally expose the student to embarrassment or disparagement.
  6. Shall not on the basis of race, color, creed, sex, national origin, marital status, political or religious beliefs, family, social or cultural background, or sexual orientation unfairly:
    • Exclude any student from participation in any program;
    • Deny benefits to any student;
    • Grant any advantage to any student.
  7. Shall not use professional relationships with students for private advantage.
  8. Shall not disclose information about students obtained in the course of professional service, unless disclosure serves a compelling professional purpose or is required by law.




The education profession is vested by the public with a trust and responsibility requiring the highest ideals of professional service.


In the belief that the quality of the services of the education profession directly influences the nation and its citizens, t he educator shall exert every effort to raise professional standards, to promote a climate that encourages the exercise of professional judgment, to achieve conditions which attract persons worthy of the trust to careers in education, and to assist in preventing the practice of the profession by unqualified persons.


In fulfillment of the obligation to the profession, the educator––

  1. Shall not in an application for a professional position deliberately make a false statement or fail to disclose a material fact related to competency and qualifications.
  2. Shall not misrepresent his/her professional qualifications.
  3. Shall not assist entry into the profession of a person known to be unqualified in respect to character, education, or other relevant attributes.
  4. Shall not knowingly make a false statement concerning the qualifications of a candidate for a professional position.
  5. Shall not assist a non-educator in the unauthorized practice of teaching.
  6. Shall not disclose information about colleagues obtained in the course of professional service unless disclosure serves a compelling professional purpose or is required by law.
  7. Shall not knowingly make false or malicious statements about a colleague.
  8. Shall not accept any gratuity, gift, or favor that might impair or appear to influence professional decisions or actions.